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Disease

Diseases are essentially abnormal conditions that impair the normal functioning of the body. In a much broader sense of the term, a disease can refer to injuries, disorders, disabilities, infections, syndromes, deviant behaviors and even isolated symptoms. Such diseased conditions are normally associated with the appearance of certain symptoms, including dysfunction, pain, social problems, distress or even death of the person who is afflicted with the disease or for people who are in contact with the afflicted person. Diseases can be caused by a number of factors, including invading organisms, internal dysfunctions or autoimmune disorders. Some of the commonly found diseases and conditions have been described below.

  1. CANCER

    It is a broad category of disease which is caused when the cells of a tissue are no longer growing, dividing or functioning, as they are meant to be in a specific organ or tissue in the body, causing precancerous cells to form. Due to certain mutations, the cells undergo uncontrolled multiplication, forming a fatal mass of cells called tumor. Some examples of cancers include colon cancer, brain cancer, kidney cancer, stomach cancer, bone cancer and thyroid cancer. There is also metastic cancer, which refers to a secondary cancer that develops elsewhere in the body when cancer cells spread from one cancer site to another in the body. Cancer is a disease that has no known cause and no known cure, although there are a small number of treatment options available. Some cancers can be cured via surgery, radiation therapy or chemotherapy. Some cancers do not show symptoms until they have spread further into the body, which makes them dangerous because they are not diagnosed until they have reached a terminal stage.

  2. HIV & AIDS

    Overview

    HIV, or the human immunodeficiency virus, is a retrovirus. This can be the catalyst of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, also known as AIDS. It is a condition that leads to a failing of the human immune system which in turn can lead to life threatening infection and disease.

    There is no such categorization of AIDS. The viral infection begins to attack the human immune system, develops inside and finally ceases the proper functioning of the body.

  3. HEARTH ATTACK

    A heart attack, or cardiac arrest, is caused by the blockage of the blood vessels supplying blood to the heart. A myocardial infarction, also known as a heart attack, occurs when a section of the heart muscle dies due to the sudden blood clot blockage in the coronary artery. This blockage restricts the blood and oxygen supply to the heart, causing chest pain, problems breathing, and possible permanent injury. Symptoms vary from person to person, especially between men and women. Women are more prone to silent heart attacks that do not produce obvious symptoms.

    Types Heart attacks occur when blockages develop the left or right coronary artery. A blockage can also develop in both areas of the heart. The two classifications of heart attacks are based on whether the coronary artery is completely or partially blocked. A non-q-wave heart attack occurs because of a partial blockage, and a q-wave heart attack occurs because of a complete blockage.

    • Symptoms & Warning Signs

      People who experience heart attacks report pain in the left arm that radiates to the shoulder. Other symptoms include chest pain, discomfort, and problems breathing. Pain might begin in the scapular area behind the chest and move to the jaw. People frequently feel a crushing sensation in the chest in addition to fatigue, blue skin discoloration, sweating, nausea, an abnormally fast pulse rate, and problems breathing.

      Many people also report anxiety, restlessness, and fidgeting. Heart attacks may cause damage to the cardiac muscle if the symptoms are not treated promptly.

    • Causes & Risk Factors

      People who have a family history of coronary disease are high heart attack risks. Other causes and risk factors include cigarette smoking, sedentary lifestyle, age, obesity, diabetes, stress, lack of exercise, high blood pressure, and high cholesterol.

    • Prevention & Treatment

      If you experience a heart attack, you will need immediate treatment. The type of treatment varies based on the severity if your condition. Even if the heart attack has not been confirmed, the doctor will begin precautionary treatment by monitoring your oxygen and by giving you aspirin, a blood thinner, to prevent additional clotting.

      To prevent a heart attack, people should keep up with regular checkups, cardiovascular exercises, and medication schedules. It is especially important to take precautions if you have already experienced a heart attack.

    • Tests & Diagnosis

      A doctor will use multiple techniques to diagnose whether you 1) have experienced a heart attack, 2) are experiencing a heart attack, and 3) are at risk for a heart attack.

      • An electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG) is a test used to detect and record the electrical activity of the heart.
      • Certain blood test can help detect proteins that may be present when a heart vessel is ruptured during a heart attack.
      • A coronary angiography is an X-ray exam that checks whether the heart and blood vessels are blocked.
  4. Stroke

    A stroke is the loss of brain function due to lack of blood supply to the brain. There can be many causes for a stroke, the common causes being thrombosis, embolism or a hemorrhage.

  5. Arthritis

    Arthritis is a condition which results in damage to the bone joints and this causes pain, stiffness and numbness. Severe cases may even necessitate the replacement of the joints for relief to the patient.

  6. Hepatitis

    Hepatitis is an infection that causes inflammation to the liver, and often results from the hepatitis A virus, the hepatitis B virus or the hepatitis C virus. These viruses spread either through blood to blood contact or through fecal contact depending on which virus is being spread and contracted. There are no actual cures or treatments for them and they essentially rectify themselves over time. But they are capable of becoming chronic diseases when the body is unable to ward them off.

  7. Hypertension

    Hypertension is high blood pressure when blood is pumped through the arteries. If a person's blood pressure is in the range of 140 - 90 or higher, he/she is said to be suffering from hypertension

  8. Diabetes

    It is an autoimmune disease where the sugar level in blood increases above normal due to lack of insulin hormone in the body.

  9. Anemia

    It is a condition in which the count of red blood cells or hemoglobin in the blood is less than normal.

  10. Asthma

    Asthma is a chronic lung disease in which the airways are inflamed and restricted causing breathing trouble.

  11. Restless Legs Syndrome

    It is a restless sensation in the legs causing burning, itching and tickling sensation in the muscles.

  12. Pneumonia

    It is a common inflammatory illness of the lungs due to infections caused by bacteria, a virus, fungi or parasites.

  13. Bronchitis

    Bronchitis is the inflammation of the mucous membranes of the bronchi associated with a common illness such as common cold or influenza.

  14. Gout

    Gout, also known as gouty arthritis, is the painful inflammation of the bone joints.

  15. Multiple Sclerosis

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune nervous system disorder that affects the brain and spinal cord.

  16. Hypertension

    Hypertension is high blood pressure when blood is pumped through the arteries. If a person’s blood pressure is in the range of 140 - 90 or higher, he/she is said to be suffering from hypertension.

  17. Psoriasis

    It is an autoimmune, chronic disease of the skin, which causes red, scaly patches on the skin, usually around joints.

  18. Acid Reflux

    Acid reflux is defined as mucosal damage due to abnormal reflux in the esophagus causing chronic symptoms such as heartburn, nausea and regurgitation.

  19. Sleep Apnea

    Sleep apnea is a disorder in which breathing gets disrupted during sleep. This can be fatal if there are long breath gaps.

  20. Meningitis

    Meningitis is an inflammation of the meninges, the membranes that surround and protect the brain and spinal cord.

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